Justin L. Gardner, PhD

Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Stanford University

Address

Department of Psychology, Stanford University
450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305

personal website

Education

1989 - 1993BS, Computer Science, Yale University
1996 - 2002 PhD, Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley and UCSF

Research and Professional Experience

1996 - 2002 Graduate Student, Lab of Stephen G. Lisberger, University of California, Berkeley and UCSF
2002 - 2004Postdoctoral Fellow, Lab of Keiji Tanaka, RIKEN Brain Science Institute
2004 - 2009Postdoctoral Fellow, Lab of David J. Heeger, New York University
2009 - 2013Unit Leader (Assistant Professor equivalent), RIKEN Brain Science Institute
2011 - 2014Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Tokyo, Department of Life Sciences
2013 - 2015Team Leader (Assistant/Associate Professor equivalent), RIKEN Brain Science Institute
2014 - presentAssistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Stanford University

Industry

1993 - 1994Member of Technical Staff, Epson Research and Development ASD Group, San Jose, CA
1994 - 1996Programmer, Smoking Car Productions, San Francisco, CA

Awards, Fellowships and Honors

1993Tau Beta Pi national engineering honor society
1993BS in Computer Science awarded Cum Laude with Distinction in the major
1996 - 1999National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship
2001 - 2002Burroughs Wellcome Fund Fellowship in Quantitative Biology
2002 - 2004Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellow
2004 - 2007NRSA from the National Eye Institute
2006 - 2009Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Award in the Biomedical Sciences
2015 - 2016Hellman Fellow
2017 - 2020Research to Prevent Blindness / Lions Clubs International Foundation: Low Vision Research Award
2018 - 2019John Philip Coghlan Fellowship

Publications

Journal Articles

Gardner, J. L., Anzai, A., Ohzawa. I., and Freeman, R. D. (1999) Linear and nonlinear contributions to orientation tuning of simple cells in the cat's striate cortex Visual Neuroscience 16:1115-1121

Gardner, J. L., and Lisberger, S. G. (2001) Linked target selection for saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements The Journal of Neuroscience 21(6):2075-2084

Gardner, J. L., and Lisberger, S. G. (2002) Serial linkage of target selection for orienting and tracking eye movements Nature Neuroscience 5:892-899

Churchland, A. K., Gardner, J. L., Chou, I. H., Priebe, N. J., and Lisberger, S. G. (2003) Directional anisotropies reveal a functional segregation of visual motion processing for perception and action Neuron 37:1001-1011

Gardner, J. L., Tokiyama, S., and Lisberger, S. G. (2004) A population decoding framework for motion aftereffects on smooth pursuit eye movements The Journal of Neuroscience 24:9035-9048

Gardner, J. L., Sun, P., Waggoner, R. A., Ueno K., Tanaka, K., and Cheng K. (2005) Contrast adaptation and representation in human early visual cortex Neuron 47:607-620

Sun, P., Ueno K., Waggoner, R. A., Gardner, J. L., Tanaka, K., and Cheng K. (2007) A temporal frequency-dependent functional architecture in human V1 revealed by high-resolution fMRI Nature Neuroscience 10:1404-1406

Gardner, J. L., Merriam, E. P., Movshon, J. A., and Heeger, D.J. (2008) Maps of visual space in human occipital cortex are retinotopic, not spatiotopic The Journal of Neuroscience 28:3988-3999

Dinstein, I., Gardner, J. L., Jazayeri, M., and Heeger, D.J. (2008) Executed and observed movements have different distributed representations in human aIPS The Journal of Neuroscience 28:11231-11239

Gardner, J. L. (2010) Is cortical vasculature functionally organized? Neuroimage 49:1953-6

Offen, S., Gardner, J. L., Schluppeck, D., and Heeger, D.J. (2010) Differential roles for frontal eye fields (FEFs) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in visual working memory and attention Journal of Vision 10:1-14

Liu, T., Hospadaruk, L., Zhu, D. C., and Gardner, J. L. (2011) Feature-specific attentional priority signals in human cortex The Journal of Neuroscience 31:4484-95

Pestilli, F., Carrasco, M., Heeger, D. J., and Gardner, J. L. (2011) Attentional enhancement via selection and pooling of early sensory responses in human visual cortex Neuron 72:832-46

Suzuki, S., Harasawa, N., Ueno, K., Gardner, J. L., Ichinohe, N., Haruno, M., Cheng, K., and Nakahara H. (2012) Learning to simulate others' decisions Neuron 74:1125-37

Sun, P., Gardner, J. L., Costagli, M., Ueno, K., Waggoner, R. A., Tanaka, K., and Cheng K. (2013) Demonstration of tuning to stimulus orientation in the human visual cortex: A high-resolution fMRI study with a novel continuous and periodic stimulation paradigm Cerebral Cortex 23:1618-29

Merriam, E. P., Gardner, J. L., Movshon, J. A., and Heeger, D.J. (2013) Modulation of visual responses by gaze direction in human visual cortex The Journal of Neuroscience 33:9879-89

Costagli, M., Ueno, K., Sun, P., Gardner, J. L., Wan, X., Ricciardi, E., Pietrini, P., Tanaka, K., and Cheng, K. (2014) Functional signalers of changes in visual stimuli: Cortical responses to increments and decrements in motion coherence Cerebral Cortex 24:110-8

Hara, Y., Pestilli, F., and Gardner, J. L. (2014) Differing effects of attention in single-units and populations are well predicted by heterogeneous tuning and the normalization model of attention Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 8:12

Vintch, B., and Gardner, J. L. (2014) Cortical correlates of human motion perception biases The Journal of Neuroscience 34:2592-2604

Hara, Y., and Gardner, J. L. (2014) Encoding of graded changes in spatial specificity of prior cues in human visual cortex Journal of Neurophysiology 112:2834-49

Gardner, J. L. (2015) A case for human systems neuroscience Neuroscience 296:130-137

Birman, D., and Gardner, J. L. (2016) Parietal and prefrontal: categorical differences? Nature Neuroscience 19:5-7

Abrahamyan, A., Silva, L. L., Dakin, S. C., Carandini, M., and Gardner, J. L. (2016) Adaptable history biases in human perceptual decisions Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113.25:E3548-57

Liu, T., Cable, D., and Gardner, J. L. (2018) Inverted encoding models of human population response conflate noise and neural tuning width The Journal of Neuroscience 38(2):398-408

Laquitaine, S., and Gardner, J. L. (2018) A switching observer for human perceptual estimation Neuron 97(2):462-474

Dobs, K., Schultz, J., Bulthoff, I., and Gardner, J. L. (2018) Task-dependent enhancement of facial expression and identity representations in human cortex Neuroimage 10:689-702

Birman, D., and Gardner, J. L. (2018) A quantitative framework for motion visibility in human cortex Journal of Neurophysiology 120(4):1824-1839

Gardner, J. L. (2019) Optimality and heuristics in perceptual neurosceince Nature Neuroscience 22:514-523

Gardner, J. L., and Liu, T. (2019) Inverted encoding models reconstruct an arbitrary model response, not the stimulus eNeuro 6:e0363-18.2019 1-11

Fukuda, H., Ma, N., Suzuki, S., Harasawa, N., Ueno, K., Gardner, J. L., Ichinohe, N., Haruno, M., Cheng, K., and Nakahara, H. (2019) Computing social value conversion in the human brain The Journal of Neuroscience 39(26):5153-72

Birman, D., and Gardner, J. L. (2019) A flexible readout mechanism of human sensory representations Nature Communications 10:3500:

Riesen, G., Norcia, A.M., and Gardner, J. L. (2019) Humans perceive binocular rivalry and fusion in a tristable dynamic state The Journal of Neuroscience 39(43):8527-8537

Patents

Tostevin, N. H., Moran, M. R., Gardner, J. L., Marrero, N. M., and Cook, R. A. (1997) Digital cartoon and animation process U.S. Patent Office 6061462

Teaching

2016 - currentPsych 50: Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience, Instructor and course designer, Introductory Undergraduate (150-200 students), Stanford Psychology Department
2014 - currentPsych 164: Brain Decoding, Instructor and course designer, Upper-level Undergraduate (15-30 students), Stanford Psychology Department
2016 - currentNEPR 207: Neurosciences Cognitive Core, Co-instructor and course designer with Russ Poldrack, Graduate (10-20 students), Stanford Neurosciences PhD Program
2017 - currentPsych/NSUR 287: Brain Machine Interfaces: Science, Technology, and Application, Co-instructor with EJ Chichilnisky, Graduate (15-25 students), Stanford Psychology and Neurosurgery Departments
2016Psych 263: Cognitive Neuroscience: Vision, Instructor and course designer, Graduate (10 students), Stanford Psychology Department
2015Psych 202: Cognitive Neuroscience Core, Co-instructor with Sam McClure, Graduate (28 students), Stanford Psychology Department

Invited talks

April 21, 2003The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute Stimulating the cognitive: Serial linkage of target selection for orienting and tracking eye movements. Invited seminar. San Francisco, CA
Sept 12, 2003Osaka University Stimulating the cognitive: Serial linkage of target selection for orienting and tracking eye movements. Invited seminar. Osaka, Japan
Nov 28, 2003National Institute for Physiological Sciences Contrast adaptation and the BOLD signal in early human visual cortex. Symposium Talk. Okazaki, Japan
Feb 5, 2004Hokkaido University Horizontal shifts of contrast response curves after contrast adaptation in human visual cortex. Invited seminar. Sapporo Japan
Jan 4, 2005Columbia University Stimulating the cognitive: Serial linkage of target selection for orienting and tracking eye movements. Invited seminar. New York, NY
Oct 6, 2005The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute Contrast adaptation and representation in human early visual cortex. Invited seminar. San Francisco, CA
Mar 9, 2006Cosyne 2006 Postconference Workshop High spatial resolution imaging to determine the dependence on spatial scale of classifier performance. Post Conference Workshop. The Canyons, Utah
Mar 28, 2006Yale University Magnetic Resonance Research Center Contrast adaptation and a functional baseline for BOLD activity in human early visual cortex. Invited Seminar. New Haven, CT
Oct 26, 2008Fall Vision Meeting Inferring population responses in human visual cortex with classification analysis. Invited talk. University of Rochester, Rochester, NY
May 24, 2010Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science Linking human visual perception to brain activity measured with fMRI. Invited talk. Incheon, Korea
Sept 27, 2010ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories Attentional enhancement of perceptual decision making through selection and pooling of early sensory responses in human visual cortex. Invited talk. Keihanna Science City, Kyoto
Oct 21, 2010Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University Attentional enhancement via selection and pooling of human visual cortical responses. Invited talk. Seoul, Korea
Nov 26, 2010Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University The role of selection and pooling of human visual cortical responses in attentional enhancement. Invited talk. Osaka, Japan
Jan 19, 2011Vision Society of Japan Meeting Quantitatively using measured human cortical responses to account for improved contrast discrimination performance with attention. Invited talk. Tokyo
Mar 8, 2011Kyoto University Representation of a prior for slow speeds in human visual cortex. Symposium talk. International Workshop on Visual Motion Perception and its Brain Mechanism, Kyoto, Japan
June 14, 2011Nottingham University Attentional enhancement through selection and pooling of visual cortical signals. Invited Talk. Nottingham, UK
June 15, 2011Newcastle University Attentional enhancement through selection and pooling of visual cortical signals. Invited Talk. Newcastle, UK
June 16, 2011Royal Holloway, University of London Attentional enhancement through selection and pooling of visual cortical signals. Invited Talk. Egham, Surrey, UK
Dec 2, 2011 文部科学省 (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) 「効率的選択」で脳は注意を向け集中を高める. Press lecture. Tokyo, Japan
Feb 1, 2012Osaka University Statistical decision making in understanding human visual perceptual inferences. Invited Talk. International Symposium on the Dynamics of Biosystems and Large Scale Information Systems, Osaka, Japan
June 15, 2012Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University Biases in speed perception are encoded in human early visual cortex. Invited talk. Expanding Horizon of MRI in Neuroscience: SNU Brain Imaging Center Opening Symposium, Seoul, Korea
Oct 18, 2012Emory University Spatial priors enhance behavioral performance through efficient selection of visual cortical signals. Invited talk. Atlanta, GA
Oct 19, 2012Harvard University Human imaging of visual priors. Symposium talk. Cambridge, MA
Dec 10, 2012University of California, Berkeley Cortical mechanisms in humans which improve perception with prior information. Invited talk. Berkeley, CA
Dec 11, 2012UCSF Cortical mechanisms in humans which improve perception with prior information. Invited talk. San Francisco, CA
Dec 13, 2012Stanford University Cortical mechanisms in humans which improve perception with prior information. Invited talk. Stanford, CA
Jan 15, 2013Salk Institute Human cortical mechanisms which improve perception with prior information. Invited talk. San Diego, CA
Mar 13, 2013Stanford University Efficient selection of visual information. Colloquium talk. Stanford, CA
May, 2013University of Tokyo Human cortical mechanisms which improve perception with prior information. Invited talk. Tokyo, Japan
July, 2013Taiwan Mind and Brain Imaging Center, National Cheng-Chi University Cortical mechanisms in humans which improve perception with prior information. Invited symposium and workshop talks. Taipei, Taiwan
Nov 29, 2013応用脳科学コンソーシアム, CAN: Consortium for Applied Neuroscience 事前情報と視覚. Invited seminar. Tokyo, Japan
Jan 17, 2014応用脳科学コンソーシアム, CAN: Consortium for Applied Neuroscience 視覚注意について. CAN Academy, Invited lecture. Tokyo, Japan
Mar 9, 2014Systems Neurobiology Spring School Neural mechanisms for perceptual enhancement with spatial attention. Invited lecture. Kyoto, Japan
Jun 25, 2014Summer Institute in Cognitive Neuroscience Efficient selection of sensory signals for attention. Invited lecture. Santa Barbara, CA
Mar 3, 2015International Symposium on Neural Mechanisms of Vision and Cognition From contrast adaptation to efficient selection. Invited talk. CiNet, Osaka, Japan
May 15, 2015Vision Science Society 15th Annual Meeting Linking brain activity to visual attentional behavior considering multiple spatial-scales of measurement. Symposium talk. St. Pete Beach, FL
April 28, 2016Center of Excellence for Learning in Education, Science and Technology, Boston University Efficient selection of visual information in human visual cortex. Invited talk. Boston, MA
June 30, 2017Qufu Vision Science Conference Contrast adaptation in human visual cortex. Symposium talk. Qufu, China
July 4, 2017Tsinghua University Priors and heuristics in human visual perception. Invited talk. Beijing, China
July 19, 2017RIKEN Brain Science Institute Priors and heuristics in human visual perception. Symposium talk. Wako, Japan
July 20, 2017Japan Neuroscience Society Meeting Testing linking hypotheses for human visual perception. Symposium talk. Chiba, Japan
Aug 28, 2017European Conference on Visual Perception Asymmetric adaptability of choice history biases in human perceptual decisions. Unraveling sequential dependencies in perceptual choice, Symposium talk. Berlin, Germany
Sept 7, 2017Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour Priors and heuristics in human visual perception. Invited talk. Nijmegen, Netherlands
Nov 23, 2017National Yang Ming University Inverted encoding models of human population response conflate noise and neural tuning width. Invited talk. Taipei, Taiwan
May 4, 2018BrainHack Global Reverse-hacking the brain: Inferring neural coding properties from population measurements. Invited speaker. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
July 17, 2018CNS*2018 Workshop on Methods of Information Theory in Computational Neuroscience Optimality and heuristics for human perceptual inference. Invited talk. Allen Institute, Seattle, WA
Aug 17, 20182018 IEEE EMBS International Summer School Inferring neural coding properties using inverted-encoding models of population response. Invited speaker. Beijing, China
Aug 18, 20181st Tsinghua Social Neuroscience Symposium Sensory inference through heuristic solution. Invited speaker. Beijing, China
Aug 19, 2018Beijing Normal University Optimality and heuristics for human perceptual inference. Invited talk. Beijing, China
Aug 20, 2018Institute of Biophysics of Chinese Academy of Sciences Optimality and heuristics for human perceptual inference. Invited talk. Beijing, China
April 19, 2019From Neural Activity to Behavior: Computation Modeling of the Nervous System Meeting Linking models for human systems neuroscience. Symposium talk. NIMH, Bethesda, MD
May 17, 2019Vision Science Society Annual Meeting Inverted encoding models reconstruct the model response, not the stimulus. Symposium talk. St. Pete Beach, FL
July 4, 2019Summer Institute in Cognitive Neuroscience How to use (and how not to use) inverted encoding models. Lab session with Tommy Sprague. Santa Barbara, CA
Aug 2, 2019Locating Representations in the Brain with Neuroimaging Technologies Gauging brain representation by quantitatively linking to behavior. Workshop Talk. Stanford University
Sept 25, 2019Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Seminar Optimality and heuristics for human perceptual inference. Invited Talk. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

Conference Session Organizing

Mar 4, 2008What can functional imaging tell us about population coding in sensory systems?: Bridging computation, single neurons and imaging, Organizers: Gardner, J. L., Huk, A. and Schluppeck, D. Cosyne Workshops, Snowbird, Utah
Mar 3, 2009Common computational principals of attention and decision making: can they account for unexpected observations in parietal cortex?, Organizers: Churchland, A. K., Ditterich, J. and Gardner, J. L. Cosyne Workshops, Snowbird, Utah
Mar 5, 2013Priors in perception, decision-making and physiology, Organizers: Gardner, J. L. and Nienborg, H. Cosyne Workshops, Snowbird, Utah
May 15, 2015Linking behavior to different measures of cortical activity, Organizers: Gardner, J. L., Serences, J. and Pestilli, F. Vision Science Society Workshops, St. Pete beach, FL

Service to Professional Organizations

Ad hoc Manuscript Review:Cerebral Cortex, Vision Research, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Neuron, Neuroimage, Nature Neuroscience, Nature, Journal of Vision, The Journal of Neuroscience, Journal of Neurophysiology
Ad hoc Grant Review:Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Wellcome Trust, Human Frontiers Research Grants

Specialized Training

1997NSF Summer Institute in Japan Fellow, Lab of Manabu Tanifuji, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Japan
1998 + 2000Student and Teaching Assistant, Computational Neuroscience: Vision, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY



Document last updated: February 04, 2020